ReSAKSS Asia

Perspectives on the role of the state in economic development: Taking stock of the “Developmental State” after 35 years
Kyle, Jordan. Washington, D.C. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1597
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: governance; economic policies; agricultural policies; economic development
Countries: MALAYSIA; SOUTH EAST ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; F Strengthening institutions and governance; PIM 2.2 Tracking investments in agricultural research; ReSAKSS Asia; CRP2
Date created: 2017-01-13
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0003-0551-8047
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131049/filename/131049.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

This review evaluates the role of the state in development, offering a new framework for understanding what capabilities states need to overcome different types of market failures. This framework is employed to understand the successes and failures of state-led development in Malaysia. The review addresses three key questions. First, what do we know about developmental states and why they emerged? Second, what have developmental states achieved? In answering this question, I look not only at growth but also at structural transformation, economic “upgrading,” equity, and human capability enhancement. In contrast to the idea of a single “East Asian model” of development, I find five distinct development trajectories. Third, how did developmental states utilize state structures to pursue development? To answer this final question, I examine in depth the history of state-led development in Malaysia—including agricultural, industrial, and social policies. This case study sheds light on what specific institutional and political capacities helped Malaysia to improve productivity in agriculture, expand the manufacturing sector, and reduce inequality. It also explores why Malaysia has been less successful in developing linkages with the export-based manufacturing sector.
Perspectives on the role of the state in economic development: Taking stock of the “Developmental State” after 35 years
Kyle, Jordan. Washington, D.C. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1597
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: governance; economic policies; agricultural policies; economic development
Countries: MALAYSIA; SOUTH EAST ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; F Strengthening institutions and governance; PIM 2.2 Tracking investments in agricultural research; ReSAKSS Asia; CRP2
Date created: 2017-01-13
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0003-0551-8047
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131049/filename/131049.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

This review evaluates the role of the state in development, offering a new framework for understanding what capabilities states need to overcome different types of market failures. This framework is employed to understand the successes and failures of state-led development in Malaysia. The review addresses three key questions. First, what do we know about developmental states and why they emerged? Second, what have developmental states achieved? In answering this question, I look not only at growth but also at structural transformation, economic “upgrading,” equity, and human capability enhancement. In contrast to the idea of a single “East Asian model” of development, I find five distinct development trajectories. Third, how did developmental states utilize state structures to pursue development? To answer this final question, I examine in depth the history of state-led development in Malaysia—including agricultural, industrial, and social policies. This case study sheds light on what specific institutional and political capacities helped Malaysia to improve productivity in agriculture, expand the manufacturing sector, and reduce inequality. It also explores why Malaysia has been less successful in developing linkages with the export-based manufacturing sector.

Improving the equity and effectiveness of Nepal’s fertilizer subsidy program

Kyle, Jordan; Resnick, Danielle; Karkee, Madhab. Washington, D.C. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1685
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: governance; fertilizers; subsidies; household surveys; agricultural extension; farm inputs; agricultural productivity; agricultural policies; public expenditure; food security; poverty
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; ReSAKSS Asia; CRP2; F Strengthening institutions and governance; D Transforming Agriculture; Policy Reform Initiative Project in Nepal
Date created: 2017-12-06
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0003-0551-8047; 0000-0001-6285-3461
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131527/filename/131527.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

This paper examines the fertilizer subsidy program in Nepal from two different angles, both important for policy makers in the country. First, it analyzes who is benefiting from the program, and second, it examines how farmers rank the importance of public spending on fertilizer subsidies compared with other potential public investments. Whereas the former question is important for judging whether the program is meeting its objectives, the latter is essential to understanding the scope for reform, in particular the extent to which we could expect citizens to resist reforms to the subsidy program. We draw on these analyses as well as on examples from other countries to make policy recommendations to improve program implementation.

Improving the equity and effectiveness of Nepal’s fertilizer subsidy program

Kyle, Jordan; Resnick, Danielle; Karkee, Madhab. Washington, D.C. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1685
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: governance; fertilizers; subsidies; household surveys; agricultural extension; farm inputs; agricultural productivity; agricultural policies; public expenditure; food security; poverty
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; ReSAKSS Asia; CRP2; F Strengthening institutions and governance; D Transforming Agriculture; Policy Reform Initiative Project in Nepal
Date created: 2017-12-06
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0003-0551-8047; 0000-0001-6285-3461
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131527/filename/131527.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

This paper examines the fertilizer subsidy program in Nepal from two different angles, both important for policy makers in the country. First, it analyzes who is benefiting from the program, and second, it examines how farmers rank the importance of public spending on fertilizer subsidies compared with other potential public investments. Whereas the former question is important for judging whether the program is meeting its objectives, the latter is essential to understanding the scope for reform, in particular the extent to which we could expect citizens to resist reforms to the subsidy program. We draw on these analyses as well as on examples from other countries to make policy recommendations to improve program implementation.
Agricultural mechanization and south-south knowledge exchange: What can Ghanaian and Nigerian policymakers learn from Bangladesh’s experience?
Aboagye, Patrick Ohene; Abubakar, Abdullahi Garba; Adama, Abdulai Iddrisu; Lawal, Akeem; Musa, Aliyu Abdullahi; Takeshima, Hiroyuki. Washington, D.C. 2016

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: GSSP Policy Note; NSSP Policy Note No.: 6; 36
Record type: Project Note
Keywords: smallholders; mechanization; diffusion of information
Countries: GHANA; NIGERIA; BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; CRP2; GSSP; NSSP; DCA; Capacity Strengthening; D Transforming Agriculture; ReSAKSS Asia; Feed the Future Innovation Laboratory for Food Security Policy (FSP)
Date created: 2016-02-05
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0002-1761-408X
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/130140/filename/130140.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

Past agricultural mechanization efforts in Ghana and Nigeria have focused more on the styles of machinery used in western countries or Latin America, where average farm sizes are much larger. While West African countries, particularly Ghana, are still relatively land abundant compared to Bangladesh, seeking the right balance across various models is important for achieving mechanization growth across diverse types of farms. Learning from the experience of agricultural mechanization in Bangladesh offer useful inspirations toward how widespread mechanization growth can happen for smallholders in Ghana and Nigeria.
Agricultural mechanization and south-south knowledge exchange: What can Ghanaian and Nigerian policymakers learn from Bangladesh’s experience?
Aboagye, Patrick Ohene; Abubakar, Abdullahi Garba; Adama, Abdulai Iddrisu; Lawal, Akeem; Musa, Aliyu Abdullahi; Takeshima, Hiroyuki. Washington, D.C. 2016

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: GSSP Policy Note; NSSP Policy Note No.: 6; 36
Record type: Project Note
Keywords: smallholders; mechanization; diffusion of information
Countries: GHANA; NIGERIA; BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; CRP2; GSSP; NSSP; DCA; Capacity Strengthening; D Transforming Agriculture; ReSAKSS Asia; Feed the Future Innovation Laboratory for Food Security Policy (FSP)
Date created: 2016-02-05
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0002-1761-408X
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/130140/filename/130140.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

Past agricultural mechanization efforts in Ghana and Nigeria have focused more on the styles of machinery used in western countries or Latin America, where average farm sizes are much larger. While West African countries, particularly Ghana, are still relatively land abundant compared to Bangladesh, seeking the right balance across various models is important for achieving mechanization growth across diverse types of farms. Learning from the experience of agricultural mechanization in Bangladesh offer useful inspirations toward how widespread mechanization growth can happen for smallholders in Ghana and Nigeria.
Nepal’s 2072 federal constitution: Implications for the governance of the agricultural sector
Kyle, Jordan; Resnick, Danielle. Washington, D.C. 2016

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1589
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: governance; agriculture; agricultural policies; decentralization; federalism
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; F Strengthening institutions and governance; CRP2; ReSAKSS Asia
Date created: 2016-12-22
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0001-6285-3461
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131009/filename/131009.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

In this paper we explore the implications of Nepal’s new federal Constitution—passed in September 2015—for governance of the agricultural sector. Agriculture is the backbone of the Nepali economy, providing a livelihood for approximately two-thirds of the population, contributing one-third of the country’s GDP, and constituting more than half of the country’s exports. In transitioning from a unitary to a federal republic—with greater authority and autonomy granted to subnational units of government—it is of paramount importance to ensure that the agricultural sector is guided by coordinated planning, retains sufficient human capacity, and receives adequate fiscal resources. These considerations are particularly important given that the governance of Nepal’s agricultural sector already suffers from poor coordination, low human resources capacity, and inadequate financial resources. Addressing these issues may become more difficult under a federal structure. This paper begins by laying out the main challenges for agricultural governance in Nepal under the current structure. To do so, it relies on an original survey of 100 district agricultural and livestock officers in charge of local agricultural service delivery in Nepal as well as perspectives collected through more than two dozen semi-structured interviews with officials from the Ministry of Agricultural Development, the Ministry of Livestock Development, civil society, the private sector, and donors. Because Nepal is embarking on a pathway to more decentralized governance, which has been well-trodden by a number of other countries, the paper proceeds by examining five case studies, drawing lessons from India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, and South Africa. Based on these analyses, the paper offers policy recommendations on how the sector can be restructured to meet the constitutional provisions, while simultaneously ensuring that the government can deliver on its long-term objectives to develop the agricultural sector.
Nepal’s 2072 federal constitution: Implications for the governance of the agricultural sector
Kyle, Jordan; Resnick, Danielle. Washington, D.C. 2016

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1589
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: governance; agriculture; agricultural policies; decentralization; federalism
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; F Strengthening institutions and governance; CRP2; ReSAKSS Asia
Date created: 2016-12-22
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0001-6285-3461
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131009/filename/131009.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

In this paper we explore the implications of Nepal’s new federal Constitution—passed in September 2015—for governance of the agricultural sector. Agriculture is the backbone of the Nepali economy, providing a livelihood for approximately two-thirds of the population, contributing one-third of the country’s GDP, and constituting more than half of the country’s exports. In transitioning from a unitary to a federal republic—with greater authority and autonomy granted to subnational units of government—it is of paramount importance to ensure that the agricultural sector is guided by coordinated planning, retains sufficient human capacity, and receives adequate fiscal resources. These considerations are particularly important given that the governance of Nepal’s agricultural sector already suffers from poor coordination, low human resources capacity, and inadequate financial resources. Addressing these issues may become more difficult under a federal structure. This paper begins by laying out the main challenges for agricultural governance in Nepal under the current structure. To do so, it relies on an original survey of 100 district agricultural and livestock officers in charge of local agricultural service delivery in Nepal as well as perspectives collected through more than two dozen semi-structured interviews with officials from the Ministry of Agricultural Development, the Ministry of Livestock Development, civil society, the private sector, and donors. Because Nepal is embarking on a pathway to more decentralized governance, which has been well-trodden by a number of other countries, the paper proceeds by examining five case studies, drawing lessons from India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, and South Africa. Based on these analyses, the paper offers policy recommendations on how the sector can be restructured to meet the constitutional provisions, while simultaneously ensuring that the government can deliver on its long-term objectives to develop the agricultural sector.
Promoting Agricultural Growth in in Myanmar: A review of policies and an assessment of knowledge gaps
Tun, Than; Kennedy, Adam; Nischan, Ulrike. Washington, D.C. 2015

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: ReSAKSS-Asia Working Paper No.: 7
Record type: Working paper
Keywords: agricultural growth; productivity; agricultural sector; agricultural policies; economic policies; governance; farm inputs; land management; finance; water use; electrification; agricultural research; seed; fertilizers; mechanization; transport; markets; trade
Countries: MYANMAR; SOUTH EAST ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; ReSAKSS Asia; Capacity Strengthening; D Transforming Agriculture; DCA; Feed the Future Innovation Laboratory for Food Security Policy (FSP)
Date created: 2015-11-20
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0002-6925-4549; 0000-0002-6492-1576
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/129810/filename/129810.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

This paper reviews the agricultural policy environment in Myanmar up until 2014 with an eye towards identifying policies that can help to accelerate productivity and profitability in the agricultural sector. We draw heavily on the Framework for Economic and Social Reform (FESR) (2012) which provides the policy intents of the government both overall and at a sectoral level. Although limited, in some instances we rely on government data which is publically available only up until 2010. This paper primarily examines the evolution of input policies and their measures of implementation, i.e. those focused on farm inputs (land management; finance; water management; research, education and extension services; rural electrification; seeds; fertilizer and mechanization). We also provide a brief overview of policies which affect farm diversification (including rice productivity and crop diversification) and output policies including policies related to post-farmgate processing; logistics and transport; wholesale markets; and broad macro-economic and trade policy.
Promoting Agricultural Growth in in Myanmar: A review of policies and an assessment of knowledge gaps
Tun, Than; Kennedy, Adam; Nischan, Ulrike. Washington, D.C. 2015

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: ReSAKSS-Asia Working Paper No.: 7
Record type: Working paper
Keywords: agricultural growth; productivity; agricultural sector; agricultural policies; economic policies; governance; farm inputs; land management; finance; water use; electrification; agricultural research; seed; fertilizers; mechanization; transport; markets; trade
Countries: MYANMAR; SOUTH EAST ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; ReSAKSS Asia; Capacity Strengthening; D Transforming Agriculture; DCA; Feed the Future Innovation Laboratory for Food Security Policy (FSP)
Date created: 2015-11-20
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0002-6925-4549; 0000-0002-6492-1576
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/129810/filename/129810.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

This paper reviews the agricultural policy environment in Myanmar up until 2014 with an eye towards identifying policies that can help to accelerate productivity and profitability in the agricultural sector. We draw heavily on the Framework for Economic and Social Reform (FESR) (2012) which provides the policy intents of the government both overall and at a sectoral level. Although limited, in some instances we rely on government data which is publically available only up until 2010. This paper primarily examines the evolution of input policies and their measures of implementation, i.e. those focused on farm inputs (land management; finance; water management; research, education and extension services; rural electrification; seeds; fertilizer and mechanization). We also provide a brief overview of policies which affect farm diversification (including rice productivity and crop diversification) and output policies including policies related to post-farmgate processing; logistics and transport; wholesale markets; and broad macro-economic and trade policy.

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