Nepal

Impact of crop diversification on rural poverty in Nepal
Thapa, Ganesh; Kumar, Anjani; Roy, Devesh; Joshi, Pramod Kumar. Article in Press

Collection: /p15738coll5
Series: Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics
Record type: Journal article
Keywords: diversification; crops; poverty; rural areas; agriculture; agricultural development; income; livelihoods; smallholders
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files: https://doi.org/10.1111/cjag.12160
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/cjag.12160
DOIA: 10.1111/cjag.12160
IFPRI descriptor: CRP4; ISI; IFPRI3
Date created: 2017-12-13
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0001-8920-6598; 0000-0003-4795-7240; 0000-0002-9637-1767
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll5/id/6069/filename/6069.pdf/mapsto/pdf
DOI : 10.1111/cjag.12160
Property rights, intersectionality, and women’s empowerment in Nepal
Pradhan, Rajendra; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Theis, Sophie. Washington, D.C. 2018

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1702
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: gender; property rights; life cycle; empowerment; development policies; assets; land ownership
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files: https://doi.org/10.2499/1020502310
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2499/1020502310
DOIA: 10.2499/1020502310
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; DCA; CRP2; CRP4; F Strengthening institutions and governance; F.4 Strengthening Property Rights and Assets; G Cross-cutting gender theme; Capacity Strengthening;
Date created: 2018-01-05
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0003-4782-3074; 0000-0003-4277-7080
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/132244/filename/132244.pdf/mapsto/pdf
DOI : 10.2499/1020502310
Abstract | View

In this paper, we explore how different norms around property rights affect the empowerment of women of different social positions over the life cycle. We first review the conceptual foundations of property, empowerment, and intersectionality, and then present the methodology and empirical findings from ethnographic field work in Nepal. Going beyond formal ownership of property, we look at changes in property rights over personal and joint property at different stages of women’s lives. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for how research and development projects, especially in South Asia, can avoid misinterpreting asset and empowerment data by incorporating nuance around the concepts of property rights over the household life cycle.
The role of plant-breeding R&D in tractor adoptions among smallholders in Asia: Insights from Nepal Terai
Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yanyan. Washington, DC 2018

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1719
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: agricultural mechanization; tractors; innovation adoption; smallholders; agricultural censuses; plant breeding; high yielding varieties; agricultural research
Countries: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; NEPAL
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; 4 Transforming Agricultural and Rural Economies; CRP2
Date created: 2018-04-20
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0002-1761-408X; 0000-0001-7553-2464
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/132416/filename/132416.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

Combining agricultural census data from Nepal from 2001 and 2011 with various spatial agroclimatic data, we show that increase in yield potentials due to the introduction of high-yield technologies (particularly improved seed varieties) plays an important role in smallholders’ tractor adoption in Nepal Terai. We use a novel instrumental variable, agroclimatic similarity between farmers’ and plant breeding institutes’ locations, to instrument the adoption of improved seed varieties. To our knowledge, our study offers the first direct evidence that mechanization growth among smallholders is partly induced by the introduction of high-yield technologies.
Agricultural diversification in Nepal: Status, determinants, and its impact on rural poverty
Thapa, Ganesh; Kumar, Anjani; Joshi, Pramod Kumar. Washington, D.C. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1634
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: poverty; rural areas; horticulture; diversification; agricultural development; welfare; households
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; CRP2; D Transforming Agriculture; A Ensuring Sustainable food production
Date created: 2017-04-28
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0001-8920-6598; 0000-0002-9637-1767
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131153/filename/131153.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

As in many parts of the developing world, the share of high value crops in agricultural gross domestic product (AgGDP) has increased substantially in Nepal. We contribute to the literature on trends in agricultural development in the poorest countries by answering the research question on “Does transition from traditional to high-value agriculture reduce rural poverty in poor developing countries”? We also identified the drivers leading to this transition. The study uses survey data from three rounds of the nationally representative Nepal Living Standard Surveys: NLSS I (1994/1995), NLSS II (2004/2005) and NLSS III (2010/2011). Multi-level model was used to study the determinants of agricultural diversification. To estimate the causal impact of agricultural diversification on welfare measures, propensity score matching and instrumental variable techniques were used. Results indicate that there has been a rightward shift in the distribution of the share (percent) of high-value crops between 1995 and 2004 and between 2004 and 2010, respectively. The area as well as the shared by major cereals (paddy, maize, and wheat) is declining over years. However, it is increasing for high-value crops (potato, vegetables, spices/condiments, and fruits). The percentage increase in share of the high-value crops was higher in or adjacent to urbanized districts between 1995 and 2010. The factors positively associated with the agricultural diversification are female-headed households, caste, mother's education, net-buyer status, urban region, remittance, farm size, kitchen garden, improved seeds, telephone and refrigerator. We found positive impact of agricultural diversification towards high-value crops on rural poverty and monthly per capita consumption expenditure. However, for cereal crops grower, we find the negative impact on poverty and monthly per capita consumption expenditure.
Overview of the evolution of agricultural mechanization in Nepal: A focus on tractors and combine harvesters
Takeshima, Hiroyuki. Washington, D.C. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1662
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: tractors; combine harvesters; mechanization
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; CRP2; D Transforming Agriculture
Date created: 2017-07-21
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0002-1761-408X
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131358/filename/131358.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

This study was conducted to understand the evolution of agricultural mechanization in Nepal, specifically its determinants on both the demand and supply sides, as well as impacts on agricultural production and associations with broader economic transformation processes, in order to draw lessons that can be conveyed to other less mechanized countries. Mechanization levels in Nepal, a largely agricultural country, were relatively low until a few decades ago. However, significant mechanization growth, including the adoption of tractors, has occurred since the 1990s, against a backdrop of rising rural wages, particularly for plowing, combined with growing emigration and growth in key staple crop yields and overall broad agricultural production growth, as well as improved market access and participation. This growth in mechanization has taken place despite the general absence of direct government support or promotion. The growth of tractor use in the plains of the Terai zone has transformed agricultural production rather than inducing labor movement out of agriculture, raising overall returns to scale in intensification and enabling the cultivation of greater areas by medium smallholders than by resource-poor smallholders. Tractors have also facilitated the intensification of crop production per unit of land among very small farmers, enabling mechanization growth despite the continued decline in farm size, although these farmers may not have benefited as much as medium smallholders. Potential future research areas with policy relevance include mitigating accessibility constraints to tractor custom hiring services, identifying appropriate regulatory policies for mechanization, and providing complementary support to some smallholders who may not fully benefit from tractor adoption alone.
Food expenditure patterns and dietary diversity in Nepal: Is dietary quality improving?
Kumar, Anjani; Thapa, Ganesh B.; Joshi, Pramod Kumar. Washington, D.C. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1670
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords:
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; CRP2; CRP4; B Promoting healthy food systems; Policy Reform Initiative Project (PRIP)
Date created: 2017-08-11
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0001-8920-6598; 0000-0002-9637-1767
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131372/filename/131372.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

The paper measures dietary diversity among different income groups in Nepal and identifies the drivers of this diversity as a first step toward addressing the widespread prevalence of nutrient deficiency. The level of diversity in household diets is an indirect measure of dietary quality and the extent to which the nutritional needs of households are being met. However, there is limited understanding of the trends, patterns, and determinants of dietary diversity in Nepal. This study is an attempt to enrich the literature on this issue. Drawing on unit-level data from three rounds (1995, 2004, and 2011) of the Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS), we use multilevel modeling, quantile regression, and the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method to decipher the trends, determinants, and drivers of dietary diversity in Nepal. Our study finds that changes in household sociodemographic and agricultural characteristics are very important in explaining the improvement in dietary quality. Changes in household characteristics account for at least 37 percent of the observed improvement, and agriculture-related changes explain at least 16 percent of the observed improvement. Variables positively associated with dietary quality are remittances, social cash transfers, parents’ education, crop diversity, access to markets and paved roads, and ownership of a television and telephone, among others. Our findings are highly robust across the different model specifications. Our study concludes by calling for a multisectoral approach to tackle nutrition issues in Nepal.
Household food expenditure, dietary diversity, and child nutrition in Nepal
Thapa, Ganesh; Kumar, Anjani; Joshi, Pramod Kumar. Washington, D.C. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1674
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: children; nutrition; malnutrition; households; household expenditure; impact; diet; food security
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; CRP4; CRP2; Policy Reform Initiative Project (PRIP)
Date created: 2017-08-31
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0001-8920-6598; 0000-0002-9637-1767
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131397/filename/131397.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

Using data from the 1995–1996 and 2010–2011 rounds of the Nepal Living Standards Survey, we study the empirical connections between household food expenditure and nutrition outcomes of children below the age of five years using multilevel and dose-response function approaches. We also examine the effects of dietary quality changes on child nutrition improvement between 1995 and 2011 employing Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition. We find that number of food groups consumed, monthly food expenditure, dietary diversity, and the expenditure shares on fruits and vegetables and animal protein have a positive impact on the expected height-for-age Z-scores. The dietary changes explain about 71 percent of the improvement in those scores between 1995 and 2011, underscoring the importance of dietary quantity, dietary diversity, and nutrient-dense food items for child nutrition outcomes.

Improving the equity and effectiveness of Nepal’s fertilizer subsidy program

Kyle, Jordan; Resnick, Danielle; Karkee, Madhab. Washington, D.C. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll2
Series: IFPRI Discussion Paper No.: 1685
Record type: Discussion paper
Keywords: governance; fertilizers; subsidies; household surveys; agricultural extension; farm inputs; agricultural productivity; agricultural policies; public expenditure; food security; poverty
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files:
DOI:
DOIA:
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI1; ReSAKSS Asia; CRP2; F Strengthening institutions and governance; D Transforming Agriculture; Policy Reform Initiative Project in Nepal
Date created: 2017-12-06
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0003-0551-8047; 0000-0001-6285-3461
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll2/id/131527/filename/131527.pdf/mapsto/pdf
Abstract | View

This paper examines the fertilizer subsidy program in Nepal from two different angles, both important for policy makers in the country. First, it analyzes who is benefiting from the program, and second, it examines how farmers rank the importance of public spending on fertilizer subsidies compared with other potential public investments. Whereas the former question is important for judging whether the program is meeting its objectives, the latter is essential to understanding the scope for reform, in particular the extent to which we could expect citizens to resist reforms to the subsidy program. We draw on these analyses as well as on examples from other countries to make policy recommendations to improve program implementation.
Custom-hired tractor services and returns to scale in smallholder agriculture: a production function approach
Takeshima, Hiroyuki. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll5
Series: Agricultural Economics No.: 48(3)
Record type: Journal article
Keywords: mechanization; smallholders; tractors
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files: https://doi.org/10.1111/agec.12339
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/agec.12339
DOIA: 10.1111/agec.12339
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI3; ISI; CRP2; D Transforming Agriculture
Date created: 2017-01-05
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0002-1761-408X
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll5/id/5660/filename/5660.pdf/mapsto/pdf
DOI : 10.1111/agec.12339
Maternal and child nutrition in Nepal: Examining drivers of progress from the mid-1990s to 2010s
Cunningham, Kenda; Headey, Derek D.; Singh, Akriti; Karmacharya, Chandni; Rana, Pooja Pandey. 2017

Collection: /p15738coll5
Series: Global Food Security No.: 13(June 2017)
Record type: Journal article
Keywords: nutrition; malnutrition; mothers; children; thinness; wasting disease (nutritional disorder); breast feeding; education; hygiene; health services; health
Countries: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA
Language: English
Dataset files: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2017.02.001
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2017.02.001
DOIA: 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.02.001
IFPRI descriptor: IFPRI3; ISI; CRP4; B Promoting healthy food systems
Date created: 2017-02-23
Subtitle:
orcida: 0000-0003-2476-5131
Resource URL: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getdownloaditem/collection/p15738coll5/id/5715/filename/5715.pdf/mapsto/pdf
DOI : 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.02.001

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