Seed, fertilizer, and irrigation are the major inputs that drive improvements in agricultural productivity. High-quality seed, alone, contributes a 15–20 percent increase in output levels. For major cereals, the key constraints facing Nepalese farmers are lack of access to high-quality seed and rates of seed replacement of less than 10 percent.
Food safety is interlinked with food and nutritional security. Growing urbanization, increase in income, change in taste preference and consumer preference have led to increase in demand for safe food.
Women are major stakeholders in India’s agriculture. In 2011, women constituted nearly half (46.2 percent) of all agricultural laborers and one-third (32.9 percent) of all cultivators in India.
Despite rich in natural resources such as water, fertile soil, mineral reserves and sun, Bihar and Odisha have not been able to capitalize upon their vast resources due lack of infrastructure (like roads, power and markets), concentration of the poor population with high density in most parts, weak institutions (such as credit, insurance, education and extension) and weak governance.
As microfinance institutions (MFIs) grow in many countries worldwide, debate continues over whether such programs truly benefit the poor. Proponents emphasize the need for innovative ways to provide poor populations access to financial services.